Great Scientists 李仕才 一、阅读理解 阅读下面短文，从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中，选出最佳选项。 “Breakfast is the most important meal of the day,“ reports the Daily Mail, claiming that “skipping it increases your chances of a heart attack.“ The study, published in the peer-reviewed journal Circulation, was carried out by researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School. It was funded by the US National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. This study followed 26,902 male American dentists, vets, pharmacists(药剂师), optometrists, osteopaths and podiatrists(足疗师) aged between 45 and 82 years old for 16 years. To be fit for the study, the men could not have a history of cancer, coronary heart disease, heart attack or stroke. The population being studied was also extremely limited — professional men who were almost white. More research in women and other groups is needed for us to learn more about breakfast and heart health. After tracking a large group of middle-aged and older male American health professionals, studying their eating habits and their risk of developing coronary heart disease for 16 years, it found that men who reported skipping breakfast had a 27% higher risk of coronary heart disease than men who ate breakfast. Men who regularly were addicted to a “midnight snack“ were found to have a 55% higher risk of coronary heart disease than men who didn’t. However, no association was seen between eating frequency (number of meals per day) and the risk of coronary heart disease. This could suggest that it is the timing of meals rather than the frequency that has a bigger influence on heart health. But because of the design of this study, a direct cause and effect relationship between breakfast and health cannot be proved. While the researchers attempted to take certain lifestyle factors into account, it could be the case that people who take time to have a regular breakfast also tend to have healthier lifestyles. 1.What is the passage mainly discussing? A. Heart disease risk is higher in men who skip breakfast. B. Breakfast is the most important meal of the day. C. Many professionals took part in the research. D. Some people have a preference for midnight snacks. 2.If you want to be a participant . A. you must be an American dentistB. you should contact Circulation C. you should be over 50 years oldD. you must be free from some diseases 3.A person who prefers to have midnight snacks . A. may have a higher risk of coronary heart disease B. may have a habit of skipping breakfast C. may have less than three meals a day D. may eat more frequently than others 4.According to the passage, we can know . A. a regular breakfast will cost a lot of time B. more research should be done about breakfast and health C. the researchers must have developed healthy lifestyles D. only a few people focus on healthy lifestyles 【文章大意】本文重点说明了早餐的重要性。由美国哈佛公共卫生学院等机构对26 902名年龄在45—82岁之间的美国男性公民的研究发现，经常不吃早餐的人突发心脏病的风险比吃早餐的人高27%。 1.A 【解析】考查主旨大意。作者在文中主要讲述了一项新的研究结果, 即经常不吃早餐的人突发心脏病的风险比吃早餐的人高。 故选A项。 2.D 【解析】考查细节理解。依据文章第三段的内容可知，要想参与这项研究,参与者要具备以下条件：男性；医务工作者；年龄在45—82岁；没有癌症、冠心病、心脏病发作或中风病史。故选D项。 3.A 【解析】考查细节理解。依据文章倒数第二段第一句可知,研究发现，经常吃夜宵的男性比不吃夜宵的男性患冠心病的风险高55%。故选A项。 4.B 【解析】考查推理判断。依据文章尾段的“because of the design of this study, a direct cause and effect relationship between breakfast and health cannot be proved“可知，由于研究的设计方案问题，不能证明早餐对健康的直接影响。故选B项。 二、教材与语法填空 根据教材课文内容，在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 John Snow, a well-known doctor in London, became 1. (inspire) when he thought about helping ordinary people who 2. (expose) to cholera, a 3. (dead) disease of its day. Many thousands of people died every time there was an outbreak 4. no one knew the cause of it. John wanted to help solve the problem. He got interested in two theories 5. (explain) how cholera killed people. He believed in the second theory that suggested that people 6. (absorb) the disease with their meals. In 1854, 7. another outbreak hit London, he was ready to test the two 8. (theory). 9. the help of the map he made, he got a valuable clue about the cause of the disease and was able to announce that the water was 10. (blame)． 答案：1.inspired 2.were exposed 3.deadly 4.because 5．explaining 6.absorbed 7.when 8.theories 9.With 10．to blame 三、完形填空 阅读下面短文，从短文后各题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中，选出可能填入空白处的最佳选项。 That was a sunny day.My father and I were on the way __1__ my uncle s home.People on the street were walking leisurely and chatting __2__ ，while my father was walking in a hurry.I tried my best to __3__ him.But I was still left behind.I could not understand why he __4__ so fast.Due to the fast speed，I lost my __5__ and was completely with sweat.Somehow，I began to be angry at him.He always did not think about my__6__. “Why do you walk so fast? Don t you see me behind you？”I said __7__.“You are always like this.Why must you __8__ so loudly？”he said and his face got red right away.In fact，I deliberately spoke loudly and made him angry.“It is your __9__ ！”I shouted at him immediately.“You always like to __10__ others！”he cried out.This made me fall into a rage(愤怒)．Then we __11__ on the street.Whatever he said，I quickly answered back.At that time，I was like a wild beast，losing my temper.Many people stopped to look at us.I was so __12__ that I could feel my face burning，for I saw some people __13__ me，which made me lose face.I touched my face __14__ glared at him.“I will never talk to him，”I said to myself angrily. __15__ could make people forget everything that your beloved had done for you.When I went to college，I still hated him.I did not say anything to him，__16__ I were not his daughter.Always I pretended to complain that I was too__17__ when he called me.However，it was his tears from the worn-out__18__ that made me feel guilty when we met.He had given me everything he had，but I could not.__19__ ，I realized that I should not hate him. Now I begin to phone him and ask him to take care of himself.Although sometimes parents will __20__ wrong，they just hope we can be better. 1．A.at B．to C．for D．of 2．A.perfectly B．eagerly C．anxiously D．enjoyably 3．A.make fun of B．catch up with C．make way for D．get rid of 4．A.walked B．ran C．started D．trained 5．A.temper B．confidence C．breath D．balance 6．A.beliefs B．behavior C．feelings D．requests 7．A.calmly B．frequently C．softly D．loudly 8．A.tell B．claim C．read D．speak 9．A.fault B．cruelty C．origin D．business 10．A.enjoy B．admire C．blame D．abuse 11．A.fought B．bargained C．consulted D．quarreled 12．A.alarmed B．afraid C．ashamed D．amazed 13．A.asking for B．laughing at C．waiting for D．aiming at 14．A.and B．so C．but D．or 15．A.Anger B．Sense C．Care D．Shame 16．A.in case B．as if C．unless D．after 17．A.wrong B．crazy C．busy D．innocent 18．A.arm B．face C．head D．body 19．A.Naturally B．Occasionally C．Obviously D．Gradually 20．A.do B．give C．find D．keep 【解题导语】作者因一件小事和父亲在大街上争吵，致使自己颜面尽失，于是下定决心不再与父亲说话。但随着岁月的流逝，作者意识到是愤怒让自己忘记了自己最爱的人为自己所做的一切，于是逐渐改变了自己对父亲的态度。 1．B 根据语境可知，作者与父亲是在去叔叔家的路上。on the way to.意为“在去……的路上”，符合语境。故选B项。 2．D 该句中while表示对比，意为“然而”。此处是说作者和父亲走得比较匆忙，而街上的其他人走得比较悠闲，边走边开心地(enjoyably)聊着天。故选D项。perfectly意为“完美地”；eagerly意为“急切地”；anxiously意为“焦虑地”。 3．B 从下文的I was still left behind可知，父亲走得很快，作者试图赶上他，但是仍然被落在了后面。catch up with意为“赶上”，符合语境。故选B项。make fun of意为“取笑”；make way for意为“给……让路”；get rid of意为“摆脱……；除去……”。 4．A 根据第二段开头的Why do you walk so fast？可知，此处指作者不知道为什么父亲走(walked)得那么快。故选A项。 5．C 根据空后的completely with sweat可知，由于走得太快，作者气喘吁吁、汗流浃背。lose one s breath意为“喘不过气来”，符合语境。故选C项。temper意为“脾气”；confidence意为“信心”；balance意为“平衡”。 6．C 根据上文中的I began to be angry at him可知，作者对父亲很生气，认为他根本不考虑作者的感受(feelings)。故选C项。belief意为“信念”；behavior意为“行为；举止”；request意为“请求；要求”。 7．D 上文提到作者很生气，所以说话的声音应该是很大的。根据第8空后的so loudly也可知答案。故选D项。calmly意为“平静地”； frequently意为“频繁地”；softly意为“温柔地”。 8．D 根据下文的In fact，I deliberately spoke loudly and.可知，此处指父亲埋怨作者说话声音大。故选D项。 9．A 作者责怪父亲走太快，自己跟不上，因此，此处指作者认为这都是父亲的过错(fault)。故选A项。cruelty意为“残忍”；origin意为“起源”；business意为“事情；商业”。 10．C 作者在埋怨父亲，而此时父亲也非常生气。因此，父亲在说作者总是责备(blame)别人。故选C项。enjoy意为“喜欢”；admire意为“欣赏”；abuse意为“虐待；滥用”。 11．D 根据下文Whatever he said，I quickly answered back.At that time, I was like a wild beast，losing my temper.可知，作者大发脾气，与父亲在大街上吵了起来，所以选quarreled，意为“争吵”。fight意为“打架”；bargain意为“讨价还价”；consult意为“咨询”。 12．C 根据空后的I could feel my face burning可知，和父亲吵架引来很多路人驻足观看，作者感觉自己的脸滚烫，因此可推断，作者感到羞愧(ashamed)。alarmed意为“担忧的；恐慌的”；afraid意为“害怕的”；amazed意为“惊奇的”。 13．B 由空后的made me lose face可知，作者觉得很丢人，因为看到路人在嘲笑她。laugh at意为“嘲笑”，符合语境。故选B项。ask for意为“请求；要求”；wait for意为“等待”；aim at意为“针对；以……为目标”。 14．A 句意为：我摸了摸我的脸，怒视着他。touched和glared是作者先后做的两个并列的动作，所以用and连接。 15．A 文中反复提到angry，通过对与父亲吵架的描述可知，此处指生气能让人忘记你所爱的人为你做的一切。故选A项。 16．B 设空后的I were not his daughter为虚拟语气，作者因怒生恨，吵架后不与父亲说话，就好像自己不是父亲的女儿似的。as if意为“好像”，符合语境。in case意为“以防”；unless意为“除非”；after意为“在……之后”。 17．C 父亲每次打电话时，作者总是抱怨太忙。busy意为“忙碌的”，符合语境。故选C项。wrong意为“错误的”；crazy意为“疯狂的”；innocent意为“无辜的”。 18．B 眼泪应该是从脸上流下来，所以选face。句意为：但是，当我们见面时，父亲那饱经沧桑的脸上流下的泪水使我感到内疚。 19．D 根据空后的I realized that I should not hate him可知，作者越来越理解父亲，认识到不应该再恨父亲，此处强调的是一个心理逐渐变化的过程。gradually意为“慢慢地；逐渐地”，符合语境。故选D项。naturally意为“自然地”occasionally意为“偶然”；obviously意为“明显地”。 20．A 尽管有时候父母会做错事，但是他们希望我们能更好。此处指可能会做错事，所以选A项。 四、教材与话题写作 (Ⅰ)用本单元所学知识完成下列句子。 1．居里夫人(Curie)出生在波兰华沙(Warsaw，Poland)，年轻时在巴黎上大学。在那里她遇见了她的丈夫。(attend) 答案：Madame Curie was born in Warsaw, Poland. She went to attend college in Paris as a young lady and there she met her husband. 2．他们专注于放射性物质的研究，这使他们发现了镭(radium)。(be absorbed in; lead to) 答案：They were absorbed in the research into radioactive matter and this led to the discovery of radium. 3．他们提出了一些有关放射性的新理论。(put forward) 答案：They put forward some new theories about radioactivity. 4．1903年，他们获得了诺贝尔奖。(award) 答案：In 1903, they were awarded the Nobel Prize. 5．居里夫人对科学发展做出了巨大贡献，但是她不看重金钱和名声。(make great contributions to; make no sense) 答案：Madame Curie made great contributions to the development of science, but money and reputation made no sense to her. (Ⅱ)将以上句子连成短文，要求衔接连贯、过渡自然。 五、下面是李华的一篇作文，文中有五处错误，改正错误并背诵该文。 Born in Warsaw, Poland, Madame Curie went to attend a college in Paris as a young lady, where she met her husband. They were absorbed in the research into radioactive matter, that led to the discovery of radium. Meanwhile, they put forward some new theory about radioactivity. In 1903, they awarded the Nobel Prize. Madame Curie made great contribution to the development of science, but money and reputation made no sense to her. 答案： Born in Warsaw, Poland, Madame Curie went to attend college in Paris as a young lady, where she met her husband. They were absorbed in the research into radioactive matter, led to the discovery of radium. Meanwhile, they put forward some new about radioactivity. In 1903, they awarded the Nobel Prize. Madame Curie made great to the development of science, but money and reputation made no sense to her.