Cloning 李仕才 一、阅读理解 Pollution’s great effects on the environment have become more obvious in recent years, leading to a movement to promote energy efficiency（效率）,less reliance on fossil（化石) fuels, and a reduction in air and water pollution. Most scientists agree that such changes are necessary to protect our environment from further harm. The construction industry consumes a large quantity of energy and resources and creates a huge amount of pollution. In the United States, building and development account for 39% of the country’s total energy use, 12% of total water consumption,68% of total electricity consumption and 38% of carbon dioxide emissions（二氧化碳排放）, according to the Environment Protection Agency. Green buildings use less energy, water, create less waste, and are healthier to live, work, and go to school in than standard buildings. Builders of green buildings use techniques that use resources more efficiently during the entire building cycle—construction, restoration, operation, maintenance（维护）and demolition（拆毁）—than those who construct more regular buildings. The environmental benefits of building green include the protection of ecosystems（生态系统）and biodiversity, improved air and water quality, less waste flowing into streams, and the protection of natural resources. Green buildings can also result in lower operating costs because they typically use less energy and fewer materials and improve indoor air quality, improving the health of people who live in such buildings. The process of building green includes technical and artistic planning with nature protection in mind. Building designs often reflect the surrounding environment and natural resources and use renewable building materials such as bamboo and straw. In addition, recycled resources found locally are used for green buildings, reducing the cost and air pollution associated with transporting materials over long distances. Careful site selection is important to minimize（最小化）human impact on the surrounding environment. For example, placing a structure in an area that allows it to take advantage of cool breezes（微风）and sunlight can reduce energy use and expenses. More energy and expense are needed for larger buildings as well, so it is important to build small. Green roofs are another feature of green houses that reduce energy use and cost. These roofs are partly or completely covered with plants, which helps to keep heating and cooling costs, prevent water running off and deal with pollutants. Other features of green buildings often include energy and water conservation, recycling, and waste reduction. In addition, renewable energy sources such as solar power, hydropower（水能）and wind power are used for heat and electricity, which greatly reduces costs and decreases the impact on the environment. 1.What is the text mainly about? A. The necessity of promoting energy efficiency. B. The process of building green buildings. C. The benefits and features of green buildings. D. Green buildings effects on the environment. 2.According to the text, green buildings refer to the buildings that______. A. produce no waste B. only use clean energy C. are made of recycled materials D. use energy and resources more efficiently 3.Which of the following statements is TRUE about green buildings? A. They rely on fossil fuels and solar power for heat and electricity. B. Small buildings are less efficient in energy use than larger ones. C. The ecosystem has to be considered when building a green building. D. They are difficult to maintain and thus need more operating costs. 4.Why are green roofs used ? A. They fit the surrounding environment well B. They are cheaper than other kinds of roofs C. They can keep natural water for use in everyday life D. They can help to control the temperature in the building well 【文章大意】在本文中作者主要分析了green building的诸多好处和对环境的巨大的?；ぷ饔?，呼吁人们多建设这样的绿色的建筑。 1.C 【解析】主旨大意题。本文第三段中Green buildings use less energy, water, create less waste, and are healthier to live, work, or go to school in than standard buildings. Green buildings use resources more properly during the entire building cycle than traditional building.和倒数第二段第一句Green roofs are another feature of green houses that reduce energy use and cost.倒数第一段第一句Other features of green buildings often include energy and water conservation, recycling, and waste reduction.可知本文主要讲述的是Green buildings的很多的好处和特征。故C正确。 3.C 【解析】推理判断题。根据第四段第一句The environmental benefits of building green include the protection of ecosystems（生态系统）and biodiversity, improved air and water quality, less waste flowing into streams, and the protection of natural resources.由此可知，建造绿色建筑时必须考虑生态系统。故选C。 4.D 【解析】细节理解题。根据倒数第二段These roofs are partly or completely covered with plants, which helps to keep heating and cooling costs, prevent water running off and deal with pollutants.可知，他们可以帮助控制大楼里的温度。故选D。 二、教材与语法填空 根据教材课文内容，在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 Cloning is a way of making an exact copy of another animal or plant. It has two major uses. One is that gardeners use it 1.___________ (produce) commercial quantities of plants. The other is that it is 2.___________ (value) for research on new species and for medical research on animals. However, the process of cloning is difficult 3.___________ (undertake)．Many 4.___________ (attempt)to clone mammals failed. The first successful clone, Dolly the sheep, made the whole 5.___________ (science) world follow its progress, though it had 6.___________ (many) problems than the normal sheep. On the other hand, Dolly’s appearance 7.___________ (raise) a storm of objections and had a great impact 8.___________ the media and public imagination. Different people have different opinions on it. 9.___________ ， scientists still wonder whether cloning will help or harm us and 10.___________ it is leading us. 答案：1.to produce 2.valuable 3.to undertake 4．attempts 5.scientific 6.more 7.raised 8.on/upon 9．However 10.where 三、完形填空 It impressed me a lot.I never thought that little help will __1__ out to be the most satisfying thing I have ever done.He was tired，and __2__ to climb further.With a broad __3__，he asked if I could help him with some money.He was paralyzed(瘫痪) in both legs and was __4__ funds for some operation.He said that if operated successfully，he could __5__ a training guaranteeing him a job.I was full of __6__ and even asked him to show his legs.I gave him the __7__ money.After a few days，he again came at my doorstep asking for more money for accommodation.This time I was more or less __8__ he was not cheating me.I gave him some and said，“This is all I have.” A year went by and I had moved to a(n) __9__ place.One fine day I got a call from an unknown number.Caller called out his name but I didn t __10__ him.Then he said he was the very paralyzed person I helped a year ago. I asked him how he was doing.He said，“What sir, you recognize me not by my name but by my __11__ state.” “With your kind help I am now able to __12__ on my legs without support.I was operated __13__.I am married to a beautiful lady and have a stable __14__.” I don t __15__ remember if I gave him my phone number.__16__，what he said next was touching.He said he wanted to return my money so that I didn t feel cheated and would continue to help people __17__ in the future.I don t know whether he read my facial expression the day I helped him but tears were __18__ down my face.That day I promised him I would continue to help people as I saw a(n) __19__—small or big.__20__ a life-changed event of my life. 1．A.send B．break C．bring D．turn 2．A.struggling B．substituting C．playing D．walking 3．A.look B．smile C．view D．whisper 4．A.finding B．raising C．seeking D．earning 5．A.pretend B．intend C．attend D．tend 6．A.interests B．minds C．worries D．doubts 7．A.remaining B．left C．hiding D．forgotten 8．A.informed B．prepared C．convinced D．outspoken 9．A.new B．old C．systematic D．bad 10．A.remind B．recognize C．replace D．repeat 11．A.excited B．messed C．disabled D．stressed 12．A.live B．base C．focus D．stand 13．A.successfully B．surprisingly C．hopefully D．naturally 14．A.reason B．promise C．character D．job 15．A.also B．even C．already D．only 16．A.Therefore B．Otherwise C．However D．Meanwhile 17．A.in need B．in place C．in favor D．in advance 18．A.bringing B．putting C．running D．pulling 19．A.behavior B．case C．accident D．opportunity 20．A.Strangely B．Truly C．Generally D．Originally 【解题导语】本文是一篇记叙文。作者一次无意间的帮助改变了一位瘫痪者的一生。这件事也改变了作者的人生，让他决定继续帮助那些有困难的人。 1．D 考查动词短语辨析。此处指作者从未想过一个小小的帮助最后竟成为他曾做过的最令自己满意的一件事。四个选项都能与out组成固定短语。turn out意为“结果是，最后成为”，符合语境。send out意为“发出”；break out意为“爆发”；bring out意为“生产，出版”，均与语境不符。故答案选D。 2．A 考查动词辨析。根据下文中的“paralyzed (瘫痪)”可知，他瘫痪了，所以此处应指他努力往前爬。A项意为“努力，挣扎”，符合语境。B项意为“替换”；C项意为“玩”；D项意为“走”，均与语境不符。故答案选A。 3．B 考查名词辨析。根据前面的“broad”可知，此处应指他咧嘴微笑着。B项意为“微笑”，符合语境。A项意为“表情”；C项意为“观点”；D项意为“耳语”，均与语境不符。故答案选B。 4．B 考查动词辨析。根据上句中的“help him with some money”可知，此处应指他在筹集手术资金。B项意为“筹集”，符合语境。A项意为“找到”；C项意为“寻找”；D项意为“挣得”，均与语境不符。故答案选B。 5．C 考查动词辨析。根据语境可知，此处应指如果手术成功了，他就能参加能让他得到一份工作的培训。C项意为“参加”，符合语境。A项意为“假装”；B项意为“打算”；D项意为“往往会”，均与语境不符。故答案选C。 6．D 考查名词辨析。根据本句中的“even asked him to show his legs”可知，作者要求看看他的腿，所以对他所说的话应该是充满了怀疑。D项意为“怀疑”，符合语境。A项意为“兴趣”；B项意为“思想”；C项意为“担心”，均与语境不符。故答案选D。 7．A 考查形容词辨析。此处指作者把手上剩余的钱都给了他。A项意为“剩余的”，符合语境。B项意为“剩下的”，不作前置定语；C项意为“隐藏的”；D项意为“被遗忘的”，均与语境不符。故答案选A。 8．C 考查形容词辨析。根据本句中的“he was not cheating me”和下句中的“gave him some”可知，作者给了他一些钱，有几分确信他并没有骗自己。C项意为“确信的，信服的”，符合语境。A项意为“见多识广的”；B项意为“准备好的”；D项意为“坦率的，直言不讳的”，均与语境不符。故答案选C。 9．A 考查形容词辨析。根据上文的“moved to”及下文作者接到一个陌生电话可知，作者搬到了一个新地方。A项意为“新的”，符合语境。B项意为“旧的”；C项意为“系统化的”；D项意为“坏的”，均与语境不符。故答案选A。 10．B 考查动词辨析。根据本句中的转折连词“but”及下文中的“you recognize me not by my name”可知，打电话的人报出了自己的名字，但作者并没有认出他来。B项意为“认出”，符合语境。A项意为“提醒”；C项意为“代替”；D项意为“重复”，均与语境不符。故答案选B。 11．C 考查形容词辨析。根据上文中的“Then he said he was the very paralyzed person”可知，作者不是通过他的名字而是通过他瘫痪的情况认出了他。C项意为“残疾的”，符合语境。A项意为“兴奋的”；B项意为“混乱的”；D项意为“有压力的”，均与语境不符。故答案选C。 12．D 考查动词辨析。根据本句中的“without support”可知，此处指他不需要支架就可以自己站起来。D项意为“站立，站起来”，符合语境。live意为“居住”；base意为“基于”；focus意为“关注”，均与语境不符。故答案选D。 13．A 考查副词辨析。根据上一句可知，他现在能够站起来，所以手术成功了。A项意为“成功地”，符合语境。B项意为“令人惊奇地”；C项意为“有希望地”；D项意为“自然地”，均与语境不符。故答案选A。 14．D 考查名词辨析。根据常识及上文中提到的“guaranteeing him a job”可推断出，他结婚了，还有了一份稳定的工作。D项意为“工作”，符合语境。A项意为“理由”；B项意为“允诺”；C项意为“性格”，均与语境不符。故答案选D。 15．B 考查副词辨析。根据语境及上文中的“A year went by”可知，此处指作者甚至不记得是否给过他电话号码。B项意为“甚至”，符合语境。故答案选B。 16．C 考查副词辨析。根据上下文语境可知，作者甚至不记得是否给过他电话号码，但是他接下来说的话却令人感动。C项意为“然而”，表示转折，符合语境。A项意为“因此”；B项意为“否则”；D项意为“与此同时”，均与语境不符。故答案选C。 17．A 考查短语辨析。根据语境可知，这位曾经瘫痪的人想将钱还给作者，这样作者就不会感觉到自己被骗从而以后可以放心去帮助那些有困难的人。A项意为“在危难中的”，符合语境。B项意为“在适当的位置”；C项不是短语；D项意为“提前”，均与语境不符。故答案选A。 18．C 考查动词辨析。根据语境可知，此处是指眼泪流过作者的脸庞。四个选项都能与down组成短语。run down意为“往下流”，符合语境。bring down意为“降低，打倒”；put down意为“镇压，记下”；pull down意为“拉下来，摧毁”，均与语境不符。故答案选C。 19．D 考查名词辨析。根据语境及本句中的“small or big”可知，此处表示只要有机会，无论大小，作者都会继续帮助他人。D项意为“机会”，符合语境。A项意为“行为”； B项意为“事例”；C项意为“事故”，均与语境不符。故答案选D。 20．B 考查副词辨析。根据全文内容以及第一段第一句可知，此处与第一句相呼应，指的是这的确是改变了作者一生的事情。B项意为“确实，的确”，符合语境。A项意为“奇怪地”；C项意为“大体上地”；D项意为“起初”，均与语境不符。故答案选B。 四、教材与话题写作 (Ⅰ)用本单元所学知识完成下列句子。 1．据我所知，人们对于克隆技术尤其是在克隆人方面的分歧相当大。(differ) ___________________________________________________ 答案：As far as I know, people differ greatly in cloning technique, especially in cloning human beings. 2．一些人支持它的发展，他们认为这项技术一定会有利于医学的发展。(in favour of; be bound to) ___________________________________________________ 答案：Some people are in favour of its development, believing the technique is bound to benefit the medical development. 3．相反，另一些人害怕克隆能引起一系列的道德问题，对社会的发展造成危害。(on the contrary; moral) ___________________________________________________ 答案：On the contrary, others fear that it could raise a storm of moral problems, thus causing damage to the social development. 4．我认为，只要所有的人都遵守规则，承诺合理应用克隆技术，克隆将会取得成功。(on assumption that; pay off) ___________________________________________________ 答案：In my opinion, cloning will pay off on assumption that all people obey rules and promise to use it properly. (Ⅱ)将以上句子连成短文，要求衔接连贯、过渡自然。 ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 五、下面是李华的一篇作文，文中有五处错误，改正错误并背诵该文。 As far as I know, people differ great in cloning technique, especially in cloning human beings. Some people are in favour of its development, believe the technique is bound to benefit the medical development. On the contrary, others fear that it could raise a storm of moral problem, thus causing damage to the social development. Therefore, in my opinion, cloning will pay off on assumption that all people obey rules and promise to use properly. 答案： As far as I know, people differ in cloning technique, especially in cloning human beings. Some people are in favour of its development, the technique is bound to benefit the medical development. On the contrary, others fear that it could raise a storm of moral ， thus causing damage to the social development. ， in my opinion, cloning will pay off on assumption that all people obey rules and promise to use properly.